The cultural significance of Lazurite

2021-08-13

Lapis Lazuli was developed and used by Central Asian countries as early as 6000 years ago. Our country began in the Western Han Dynasty, when the names were "Lan Chi", "Jin Chi, "Dian Dai", etc. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, lapis lazuli "hue is like the sky", the sky is the supreme, so the Ming and Qing emperors heavy lapis lazuli .
Lapis lazuli is one of the ancient jade stones. It has won the love of people in the East with its bright blue color. In ancient Egypt, thousands of BC, lapis lazuli was as valuable as gold. In ancient India, Iran and other countries, lapis lazuli, turquoise, and coral are all precious jade species. In ancient Greece and Rome, wearing lapis lazuli was considered a sign of wealth. Lapis Lazuli was also called "Emperor Blue" because of its "color like the sky", it was very popular among ancient emperors and was often buried in tombs. Lapis lazuli is dignified in color and easy to carve, and has maintained its reputation as a first-class jade material. Lapis Lazuli is also used as a paint for painting.
We know that lapis lazuli is very valuable in Babylon and Egypt, and it is expressed in poetry. For example, the moon god sin (the moon god sin) is described in such a god song: "Strong like a bull, big head, perfect shape, long forehead, as prominent as lapis lazuli." At that time, people believed that lapis lazuli was a good medicine to treat depression and "malaria malaria", which is an intermittent fever that recurs every three days.
Lapis Lazuli is often an important item on the tribute list to Egypt, and it is also one of the important gifts given by the King of Babylon to the King of Egypt. The amulets, cylindrical seals, gems carved with scarabs, and other crafts found in ancient tombs and kept in the museum are made of this material, so even if it takes years to bring precious goods After returning, the merchants took a long trip to the badakshan mine. When reporting gold and silver treasures looted from defeated countries, lapis lazuli is often listed before gold and other valuables.
From ancient Greece and Roman times to the Renaissance, lapis lazuli was always ground into powder and made into ultramarine pigments. Ultramarine was used in many world-famous oil paintings. In the Middle Ages, decorating manuscripts was a superb art. The monks crushed the gemstone into powder, wetted it with beeswax, rosin, and sesame oil, and used it for binding the scriptures. This pigment is so valuable that the work commissioned with it is a sign of wealth. The ancient Chinese called lapis lazuli "dark blue star colored stone". They developed it into cosmetics to draw eyebrows, and made its pieces into screens studded with pearls.

"Shi Ya" says: "The lapis lazuli hue is like the sky, or the complex gold chips are scattered, and the brilliance is brilliant, if the stars are beautiful in the sky." Therefore, in ancient China, lapis lazuli was usually used as a symbol of the majesty and nobility of the heavens. "Supplementary Notes" volume five years: "The former emperor is a mound,...the colored glaze miscellaneous treasures are used as turtles and fish." Some people think that the "colored glaze" here is lapis lazuli. However, the ancients distinguished gemstones, the color is not the quality, and the color is similar, although the quality is different, the name is still the same. Therefore, archaeologists need to verify whether there are lapis lazuli in the tomb of Qin Shihuang. Foreign scholar Hertz believes that China had lapis lazuli in the second century (Eastern Han Dynasty), while Zhang Hongzhao believed that China had existed in the beginning of the third generation in Shi Ya. This dispute also needs to be resolved by the majority of archaeologists. According to the "Research on the Classics of the Qing Dynasty": "The emperor's dynasty beads are mixed with lapis lazuli, the altar of earth uses amber, the sun altar uses coral, and the moon altar uses turquoise; Topaz, coral for the sun altar and white jade for the moon altar". Jade is used to symbolize the sky, the earth, the sun, and the moon, among which the sky is the supremacy. Because the lapis lazuli jade "hue is like the sky", it is especially used regardless of the pearl or the belt. Lapis Lazuli is also regarded as a "treasure" by Arab countries and Afghanistan also regards it as the "national stone" of its own country.

Colored jasper and glass with copper inclusions often appear in the jewelry market to imitate lapis lazuli. Frenchman Gilson produced synthetic "lapis lazuli" ingredients, which are very similar to natural products.

Lapis lazuli is known as the national stone of Afghanistan, especially the lapis lazuli produced in Badakhshan province in the northeast of the country. However, a report published by the International Anti-Corruption Organization revealed that a large amount of income from illegal lapis lazuli mining is flowing into the purse of the Taliban in Afghanistan to provide financial support for its recruitment.